[72], A study by Zeynep Tufekci of the University of North Carolina and Christopher Wilson of the United Nations Development Program concluded that "social media in general, and Facebook in particular, provided new sources of information the regime could not easily control and were crucial in shaping how citizens made individual decisions about participating in protests, the logistics of protest, and the likelihood of success. What we are seeing today since 2011, argues Hellyer, is a clash between those "inherited structures" and the new "demographic realities" of the populations of the region.[381].
[321][322][323] This interpretation is, however, problematized by the subsequent political turmoil that emerged, particularly in Egypt. Former ambassador to Egypt (Frank G.) Wisner publicly suggested that Mr. Mubarak had to be at the center of any change, and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton warned that any transition would take time.

| Mobile version, who killed three people in Nice on Thursday, Recovering but still uneasy, Nice slowly getting back to normal, stabbing of two National Guard officers in Sousse, Tunisia nears zero coronavirus cases as it eyes tourism. ICTs and the Fuzzy Causes of the Arab Spring", International Journal of Baudrillard Studies, "Why was the Arab World Poised for Revolution? Tunisia erected an "anti-jihadi" fence on the Libyan border in 2016.

"Alexander Kazamias, 'The "Anger Revolutions" in the Middle East: an answer to decades of failed reform', Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 13:2, June 2011, pp.143–156", "Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis", "arab league demographics - Wolfram|Alpha", "La rente pétrolière ne garantit plus la paix sociale". On 30 September 2011, Abdullah approves changes to all 42 articles of the Constitution, In October 2011, Abdullah dismisses Prime Minister, In October 2012, Abdullah dissolves the parliament for new early, Granting of lawmaking powers to Oman's elected legislature, Arrest and prosecution of Mubarak, his family and his former ministers, Lifting of the 31-year-old state of emergency, Large defections from the Syrian army and clashes between soldiers and defectors, Occupation of several areas of Yemeni territory by, Approval of Saleh's immunity from prosecution by Yemeni legislators, Bashir nevertheless chosen as Ruling Party candidate for 2015 election, Fayyad resigns on 13 April 2013 because of political differences between him and the Palestinian president, Resignation of provincial governors and local authorities, Two-thirds wage increase for Sahwa militia members, Head of the National Security Apparatus removed from post, Respect to civil rights and an end to corruption, 4 governments overthrown as part of the events, Six protests leading to governmental changes, 3 governments overthrown in the aftermath, Four civil wars in the aftermath (Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen), Increasing sectarianism (primarily Sunni-Shia) at least in part from. By 20 February, protests had spread to the capital Tripoli, leading to a television address by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, who warned the protestors that their country could descend into civil war. The Egyptian middle class has illustrated this ambivalence and contradiction in 2011 and 2013: "The volatility of middle-class politics is vividly illustrated by the sharp turns in Egypt, from acclamation of democracy to adulation of the military and its mounting repression of dissent, effectively condoning the restoration of the ancien régime minus Mubarak.[343].

Elsewhere, most notably in the monarchies of Morocco and the Persian Gulf, existing regimes co-opted the Arab Spring movement and managed to maintain order without significant social change. The Arab Spring was a curious mix of revolution and counter-revolution to a degree seldom appreciated in the west. [299], On 3 February, 20,000 protesters demonstrated against the government in Sana'a,[300][301] others participated in a "Day of Rage" in Aden[302] that was called for by Tawakel Karman,[297] while soldiers, armed members of the General People's Congress, and many protestors held a pro-government rally in Sana'a. "The French foreign policy U-turn in the Arab Spring–the case of Tunisia.".

The Arab Spring demonstrated that public opinion can powerfully affect the region’s political life.

Considered in Western political circles as a model of liberal economic reform in the Arab world, Tunisia suffered from high youth unemployment, inequality, and outrageous nepotism on the part of Ben Ali and his wife, the vilified Leila al-Trabulsi. [246] Violent protests, however, continued through the end of 2011 as many Egyptians expressed concern about the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces' perceived sluggishness in instituting reforms and their grip on power. [386], This article is about the demonstrations and revolts in the Arab world in the early 2010s. (2011), The New Arab Revolt: What Happened, What It Means, and What Comes Next, Council on Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs, Maggio-Giugno. Since 2011, the goals of many Arab Spring protesters have been denied as autocratic governments regain power and crack down on civil liberties. Tunisia was an early model of Arab Spring success — yet several perpetrators of recent attacks come from there. As a result, protesters called for the freedom of the arrested man.
[14][15][16][17][18] As of May 2018, only the uprising in Tunisia has resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic governance. Ultimately, it resulted in a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support for democracy in many Muslim-majority states.

However, in some cases, these protests morphed into full-scale civil wars, as evidenced in countries such as Libya, Syria and Yemen. But also to the forms the states in the MENA region took in the postcolonial era and the social pacts that were established in the process. A suicide attack targeting the French Embassy in June 2019 and one at the US Embassy in March also suggest that the problem lies just as much at home. Revolutions have brought about some of the most radical transformations in world history and politics. The Arab Spring was a loosely related group of protests that ultimately resulted in regime changes in countries such as Tunisia, Egypt and Libya. Five years after militant Islamists killed more than 60 tourists in two mass shootings at a Tunisian resort and museum, police in the North African state have grown far better at disrupting plots and responding quickly when attacks take place, according to diplomats quoted by Reuters.

Projections for economic contraction will remain high at almost 7% in 2017. The demonstrations were preceded by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption,[271] lack of freedom of speech and other forms of political freedom,[272] and poor living conditions. [212](pp150)[219] After the lifting of emergency law on 1 June,[220] several large rallies were staged by the opposition parties.

Increased caution and political learning in countries such as Algeria and Jordan where Islamists have chosen not to lead a major challenge against their governments.

[66][67], Facebook, Twitter, and other major social media played a key role in the movement of Egyptian and Tunisian activists in particular. With military help from the West and several Arab states, rebel forces took Tripoli after six months of fighting in which several thousand people were killed. The demands of the genuine grassroots movements are unlikely, unfortunately, "to be attained through a peaceful process – one without violence and the violation of the human rights of many". Nonetheless, the uprisings have shown the power of mass demonstrations and peaceful protest, as well as the ability of social media to both fuel protest and communicate its goals to the outside world. He also referred to Western powers' history of backing military rule in the region, and how American interests in the Middle East clashed with French but mainly with British ones, citing the American supported coups in Syria and Egypt, but generally how, as former US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice admitted, the United States "pursued stability at the expense of democracy... and achieved neither". Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses. [369] Otpor, writes Bayat in his discussion of the agencies of the Arab Spring activism in Tunisia and Egypt, obtained funds from well-known American organisations such as the American National Endowment for Democracy, USAID, and the International Republican Institute. On 3 July 2013, the military overthrew the replacement government and President Morsi was removed from power.

Last year, authorities said they had cornered an off-shoot of Al Qaeda along the mountainous border with Algeria and prosecuted a significantly higher number of alleged terrorists than in previous years. "That we have this prevalent element of radicalization is probably due to the fact that Tunisia has not developed the capacity to freely express its ideas," Safi said. [83], In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) southeast of El Aaiún by a group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. [69] Furthermore, 28% of Egyptians and 29% of Tunisians from the same poll said that blocking Facebook greatly hindered and/or disrupted communication. [63] Some researchers have shown how collective intelligence, dynamics of the crowd in participatory systems such as social media, has immense power to support a collective action—such as foment a political change. The "select rich urban bourgeoisie, the Sunni Damascene in particular", according to Tokyo University researcher Housam Darwisheh, "now has a direct interest in preserving stability and their relations with the regime as long as their businesses prosper. [324][328], Also crucial was the degree of state censorship over print, broadcast, and social media in different countries. Rapper Braxton 'Brax' Baker dead at 21 as mom says 'God retrieved an angel', I'm A Celebrity full line-up revealed as Radio 1 DJ becomes final contestant, Ryan Giggs is a sex addict...I feel sorry for him, says brother Rhodri, I bought all my Xmas gifts in 5 hours pre-lockdown…staff had to carry my bags, GPs could dole out Covid vaccine on Xmas and Boxing Day to protect millions, ©News Group Newspapers Limited in England No. March 15, 2011: Pro-democracy protests begin in Syria. Some Tunisians in Europe may be marginalized. [312] On 12 September Saleh issued a presidential decree while still receiving treatment in Riyadh authorizing Hadi to negotiate a deal with the opposition and sign the GCC initiative.[313]. In the aftermath of the Arab Spring in various countries, there was a wave of violence and instability commonly known as the Arab Winter[319] or Islamist Winter. Al Jazeera. "[351] What was prevalent, according to the Syrian writer and political dissident Yassin al-Haj Saleh was three 'springs' that ensured the status quo. Gause, F. G. (2011), Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability, in Foreign Affairs, July/August.

Countries with stronger civil society networks in various forms underwent more successful reforms during the Arab Spring; these findings are also consistent with more general social science theories such as those espoused by Robert D. Putnam and Joel S.

Demonstrators expressing political and economic grievances faced violent crackdowns by …

On 17 March, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 was adopted, authorising a no-fly zone over Libya, and "all necessary measures" to protect civilians. "[364] In this 'negotiated revolution', comments Bayat, "revolutionaries had in effect little part in the 'negotiations'.

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